Fire Belly FireBlog
I wanted to take a moment to officially introduce the new FireBelly Organic Lawn Care website.
FireBelly Organics has been providing homeowners with a quality organic lawn care program since 2009 and we thought it was time to give the site an overhaul.
Thank you to Luke Tomanek at Votumba for getting it done as always!
Dealing with Crabgrass in Six Steps or Less!
Crabgrass is your biggest enemy this time of year and the weather conditions have set up a “perfect storm” when it comes to an outbreak. Too much moisture in June and soaring temperatures in July will make crabgrass your number one reason for cancellation over the next two months. Don’t wait to address the problem until it’s too late. Be proactive with the issue and start dealing with it now.
The absolute most important thing to consider when dealing with a crabgrass outbreak is that it will not cause you to go out of business or ruin your reputation. Yes, things may look bad for a few weeks and yes, you will take multiple complaints and have to perform multiple call backs. Yes, you will even lose a few customers because of the issue but you absolutely have to keep in mind that it is not the end of the world.
Crabgrass is a temporary thing simply by its very nature as an annual weed. Crabgrass will germinate when soil temperatures reach a certain threshold and it will proliferate as temperatures soar. However, once you get over the hump of the dog days of summer its growth will slow significantly and then finally stop growing altogether when it reaches maturity. By the time the first frost arrives and kills it completely it’s not likely you will even be taking calls any longer and the storm will be over. What’s the lesson here? Try not to panic, it will pass.
When the crabgrass explosion hits, you must communicate proactively with your customers. If you choose to ignore a crabgrass outbreak you will undoubtedly take more cancels than if you tackle it head on. Many of your customers won’t be afraid to contact you proactively when they are unhappy but the majority of them will simply think that you’ve done something wrong in the care of their lawn. If they’ve got a longer memory than most lawn care customers they may take that into consideration come renewal time so instead of ignoring the situation you must take action to address it. Many successful lawn care services will begin to talk about it through all of their communication channels like social media and newsletters but they also will put out an alert to be left behind with every single treatment that is done. Explain the reasons why there is a crabgrass outbreak, explain the means you are taking to deal with it and let them know what they can expect. When you tell your customers that the crabgrass will be bad for several weeks, will become less of a problem moving forward and then will be solved towards the end of the summer you will look like a hero when that actually happens.
Post-emergent controls can be effective but they are not a cure-all. There is no doubt that you have to have these post emergent controls on your truck but it would be a mistake to begin blanket spraying every single lawn with a curative or post emergent control. This can be costly and when you are operating with your margin in mind it doesn’t make sense to eat it all up with one very expensive application that you could probably avoid. However, with that being said, your customers expect that you are addressing the issue and you should always attempt to spot treat in the most visible places. Again, remember this problem will solve itself as temperatures moderate and the crabgrass plant reaches maturity.
Be mindful of your fertility treatments, especially in the cool season regions. Water soluble fertilizer will immediately be used up by existing crabgrass plants. You know how that crabgrass explosion seems to happen overnight? Many times it does because we are creating it earlier and earlier every single year. Crabgrass plants have very shallow roots. If you don’t believe me go ahead and pull one out of the ground and you will see that the root system is flimsy at the most and only exists in the first half inch of soil. When you fertilize with a water soluble source of nitrogen (urea) it will be absorbed by the crabgrass plants before ever reaching the root zone of the existing turf. In cool season regions where ryegrass, bluegrass and fescues dominate these turf types do not want to be excessively fertilized in the middle of summer. These turf types go through two distinct growth phases; one in the spring and one in the fall. Summer fertility should be minimized to reduce crabgrass growth. Make sure that you have properly timed fertility treatments scheduled in advance of summer to push turf growth to compete with crabgrass.
You’ve been getting the same cultural advice for years and years. Some of it is good and some of it is gibberish but it has to be a part of your strategy. The majority of dealing with crabgrass takes place long before and long after crabgrass is an actual problem. Remember that, crabgrass germinates based on soil temperatures and it flourishes when air temperatures spike. It’s very important that you do everything you can to keep those temperatures minimized. This includes mowing high and watering deeply. Set your mowers as high as you can stand them in order to keep the soil shaded for as long as you can. When it comes to watering, you should be watering deeply to promote deep root growth of your turf. Just like with the fertilizer issue, if you are watering for ten minutes per zone the only roots that will be absorbing the moisture is the crabgrass roots. The way in which you mow your lawn or your customer’s lawns is the number one factor when it comes to dealing with crabgrass. If your turf does not need to be mowed, simply do not mow it. Mowing is a violent process that causes stress and if temperatures are in the nineties you most certainly should NOT be mowing at all. Stressed turf is weak turf and crabgrass capitalizes immediately. Do everything you possibly can to NOT cause your turf stress.
See number one. Take a deep breath. Understand that you are not alone with this issue. Even if you think the sky is falling and today it just may be, it isn’t the end of the world. Be honest and truthful with your customers. Be confident in your assessments. You can get through this.
Driving around looking at lawns today I happened to notice that there has been an absolute explosion of clover. Well, maybe not an explosion of clover but more like an explosion of flowers blooming from existing clover. One of the things about the cyclical nature of what many people consider to be lawn care problems is that they happen to show up quickly and then either disappear as a result of changes in the environment or more often than not, changes in how we prioritize problems in our lives. In any event, the clover is blooming like mad and it’s creating a situation where a normally beneficial issue looks like one big fat lawn care problem. Think back to about a month ago when you thought the world was coming to an end because of dandelions. How’d that go for you?
Most people don’t seem to mind some clover growing in their lawns and, in fact, it’s actually a good thing. Without going into a detailed scientific explanation about the Nitrogen cycle let’s just all agree that clover magically makes nitrogen appear. Okay, well maybe a little detail would help. Clover, like other legumes such as beans and peas absorbs nitrogen from the air and then bacteria convert it to a plant available form in the root zone. If you’ve ever looked at a non-fertilized lawn that has a couple of patches of clover in it you will notice that the turf is greener inside and around the weed. Imagine if there was clover growing sporadically throughout your lawn. It certainly would help distribute nutrients to keep things green. Besides that, clover doesn’t really go dormant when water is less available.
Check out this ad in the New York times from the “oldern days.”
Here’s the deal. The clover that seems to be completely taking over your lawn right now was there a week ago, was there a month ago and will probably be there for the most part in the near future. It just won’t be flowering and will find it’s way back under the canopy of the turf for the most part. If you are maintaining an organic lawn there are a few products that you can use to work on clearing it up but it typically takes a few applications. Summer weather makes it more difficult too because the plant itself has closed up shop to conserve moisture meaning it has a hard time absorbing the weed control you spray on it. Not to mention the very waxy surface that causes a good deal of whatever you are using to bead up and roll off. Control of clover in the summer is difficult to say the least.
I thought that since we’ve been looking at pesticide labels lately I would do the same with a product that is very commonly used to control clover in chemical lawns. The brand name I chose here is “Three Way” but there are many other brand names that contain the same active ingredients. (See “Triplet” and “Trimec.”) I won’t go into those active ingredients now but you’ve probably heard of 2,4-D? Yeah, that’s the one that the activists always call the “cousin of “Agent Orange” the defoliant used in the Vietnam War. For now though, let’s just look at the language on the label.
“This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, and may adversely affect non-target plants. Do not apply directly to water, to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Drift or runoff may be hazardous to aquatic organisms in water adjacent to treated areas. Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from target area.”
Sound familiar? How about this one?
“This chemical has properties and characteristics associated with chemicals detected in groundwater. The use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Application around a cistern or well may result in contamination of drinking water or groundwater.”
Yeah, we’ve discussed that one lately too! I hate to scare you but it’s very likely this very product was used many, many times in your hometown just today. In fact if you saw a lawn care truck today on your street I can almost guarantee that it was used in your neighborhood.
All lawn care is seasonal and cyclical. Focus on developing a healthy soil by using chemical free products and biologically active inputs and most of the so called problems become less evident to you. Look out your window and think about the white, heat flowered clover and then repeat after me, “Application around a cistern or well may result in contamination of drinking water or ground water.”
One more time, “Application around a cistern or well may result in contamination of drinking water or ground water.”
Now look out at the clover and think about the word “problem” again.
That’s what I thought.
I’m not completely sure I can think of anything any more boring to write about other than the control of aphids. However, we have taken a little bit of criticism as of late for chastising the operator who used a chemical insecticide on a bunch of Linden Trees in Oregon and accidentally killed what is now estimated to be 50,000 bumble bees. We were rather strong with our rhetoric in regards to the mistakes that were made concerning the treatment and the result of said treatment but when you are talking about what generally equates to a bee genocide it’s necessary to do what you can to expose the issue and to present an alternative that would have prevented the issue in the first place.
The initial tool in any horticultural pursuit has to primarily be common sense. When a pest control applicator is assigned the duty to go to a site a spray an insecticide to a large scale target one would assume that the proper steps will be taken in advance of the application. Generally speaking I am not a big supporter of what is known as IPM or “Integrated Pest Management” because it is a concept that we should all basically translate to as being simple common sense. What it means is that you should only spray or apply pesticides if the threshold for damage from a particular pest has been crossed. This threshold has to revolve around what we refer to as “economic damage” and is vaguely related to what some consider to be a precautionary principle. In this case it means that the applicator should have only sprayed the insecticide if the Linden Trees were in danger of being destroyed from an Aphid invasion. I have not been able to determine if the Linden Trees were showing any visible signs of decline or if an Aphid infestation had been identified. So, for this reason, I am going to err on the side of faith and assume that the applicator had, in fact identified an significant infestation and that he/she was only performing this treatment to prevent the Linden Trees from damage. Again, in other words, the threshold for economic damage had been crossed. Call it IPM or call it common sense but let’s assume the applicator did what was right. (If this is not the case we have a very serious issue on our hands and I would suggest that criminal negligence should be considered.)
So now, lets move onto the next phase of the process. The applicator identified a problem and was employed, either by contract or by hire, to control this issue. This is where the first case of a general lack of common sense began to play out. The applicator was now required to choose a product to control the infestation. For some reason he/she chose a product called “Safari” which is described the following way on it’s manufacturers website,
“Safari Insecticide, a super-systemic insecticide with quick uptake and knockdown, controls a broad spectrum of ferocious and invasive pests, including Q- and B-biotype whitefly, Hemlock woolly adelgid, emerald ash borer, mealybug, mountain pine beetle 2(ee), leafminer, fungus gnat, black vine weevil, glassy-winged sharpshooter, armored and soft scale and lacebug—some of the most costly pests that affect high value greenhouse and nursery crops such as poinsettia and hibiscus, as well as trees, shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in the lawn and landscape market. With two formulations, Safari is super-flexible when it comes to application.”
As we reported the other day, it’s label also states the following,
“This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area.”
Based on this information I am of the opinion that Safari was not the appropriate treatment for the issue that the applicator had set out to deal with. Again, common sense tells me that if there are other plants that are blooming in the general area I should assume that there are Bee’s in the general area as well. Considering that it was mid June in the Pacific Northwest common sense would tell you that a product with a warning about toxicity towards Bees would be the wrong choice. I also don’t care for the words “broad spectrum” because that screams of preventative control. You would only apply a broad spectrum insecticide if you weren’t particularly able to identify what you should be spraying. If you kill them all you can rest assured that damage will not occur, at least for the duration of the residual of the product.
It would also be wrong for me to not suggest an alternative. I am not an arborist nor am I an etymologist but I do have the distinct ability to read labels and I believe I have a fairly good handle on common sense. (Even though my wife would likely tell you different.) Here are my solutions in order of preference.
1. No treatment at all. The question is, and I don’t know the answer having not been there, were the trees in decline as a result of aphids? If not, there is absolutely no reason to apply this product as a preventative control.
2. A preventative control such as a horticultural (dormant) oil in late winter would have prevented over-wintering eggs from hatching.
3. In the event of an infestation the use of an environmentally appropriate product such as Neem Oil. A popular brand among applicators is a product called “Azasol.” If your at all familiar with Neem Oil you know that it carries a “zero days to harvest” classification when it’s used in agriculture. That means if you spray it on something you can safely consume it without waiting for any extended period of time.
Finally, I know that one of the defenses against using other more appropriate products is the fact that they cost more. I’ll bet the applicator behind the J D 9 gun attached to the tank full of insecticide that killed 50,000 bees wishes he/she could spend a few extra dollars to make this problem go away. Was it worth it?
It’s occasionally a challenge to remember that what I see outside my window is not always what everybody sees out their own window. In fact, weather conditions are usually much different where you are than they are where I am. However on days like today and weeks like this one the weather gap closes a little bit and I can relate much easier to what the conditions are in most parts of the country. Here in New Hampshire we are on day three of ninety degree plus scorching weather. Most of you will probably be surprised to know that my wife and I don’t even own an air conditioner and it’s difficult to even find a fan in a window. The reason for this is that it seldom gets this hot for this long and outside of some daily discomfort and evening tossing and turning by the kids we usually find ourselves complaining about the cold more than we find ourselves complaining about the heat. It is for this reason that irrigation isn’t a terribly pressing issue for us as mother nature usually supplies enough to keep lawns growing and healthy other than for a short period of time in the midst of the summer doldrums. Yeah, grass turns brown but always bounces back before we have to implement irrigation restrictions and sound the panic alarm for a lawn care emergency.
But it’s with days like today in mind that I have to go to the old book of lawn care 101 to remind us all what the proper procedure is in regards to irrigating your turf. First off, you may be surprised to know that watering incorrectly or watering too much is often times more of a problem than not watering at all. Those irrigation systems become weapons of defensiveness by the typical homeowner and as lawn care operators we’ve heard the phrase, “do you want to see my water bill” at least one too many times to be able to answer you with a straight face. Irrigation is important when it gets hot and doesn’t rain but for the most part unless you live somewhere way far away from my window where it doesn’t actually rain ever or you have warm season grasses growing from beach sand we can manage the irrigation issue with ease. So with that in mind let’s review the basics.
1. Don’t get too stressed out, it’s only your lawn. Unless you have the head groundskeeper job at a professional baseball stadium or your a superintendent at a golf course with a tournament coming up on national television, just chill out. Relax, it’s not that bad. If you are feeling stress about your lawn and irrigation system you should probably unplug it right now. You’ll be better off.
2. Your lawn needs somewhere between 1 and 2 inches of water per week to stay happy. How do you get that? Well that’s a very difficult question to answer because so much depends on the conditions going on at the time. If you are watering when its 95 degrees out you will likely need to run the irrigation system for much longer than you would have to if it were 55 degrees out. You know, because water tends to evaporate when it’s hot. Picture a pot of boiling water left on too long. If your soil is really sandy and tends to allow water to leach easily you may have to water longer than if your lawn grows from spongy loam with lots of organic matter.
3. With the concept of number two in mind take into consideration that you should water for long cycles with days off in between in place of attempting to get two inches of water per week by watering .28 inches per day. A quarter of an inch of water, delivered with a ten minute cycle will hardly break the surface of the soil, never mind reach the root zone where it counts. Try watering an inch at a time twice a week instead of a quarter inch every day.
4. It’s okay to water at night. Sometimes lawn guys will tell you to never use your irrigation at night because it may cause disease activity. While this is somewhat true it’s not something to worry about if you follow the concept of number three faithfully. Turf grass that gets a soaking every single night may be more susceptible to many turf diseases but only if conditions are very humid, cultural practices are terrible and nitrogen applications are overdone. If you have to water at night and your only doing it twice a week, go to town.
5. Finally, and this one is the most difficult to get across sometimes; if your lawn does not need water you shouldn’t give it any. The temptation is always there, when asked, “when should I water my lawn?” to answer with “when it needs it.” Your lawn and/or grass types have spent thousands of years and summers becoming acclimated to the conditions in which it finds itself growing. I guess it’s a kind of lawn care evolution in that if things don’t go just right for your lawn it always tends to make through. Water your lawn only when it needs to be watered and this is only in times of heat and general lack of rain. A good indicator or sign that your lawn needs water is if you walk across it and you can see your foot prints behind you. If the turf does not bounce right back it means it just may be thirsty!
Okay, that wasn’t too bad. We made it through and I will leave you with this. A lawn that is growing from soil with a healthy food web, increased biological activity and a good percent of organic matter in it will require far far FAR less water than a lawn growing from sterile chemically treated dirt. Don’t just think about that……….picture it.
On Friday I wrote a rather tongue and cheek essay about how 25,000 dead bees falling out of Linden trees may possibly be linked to the use of a pesticide. Over the weekend it was confirmed that the bees were killed by an application of a product called “Safari.” This is a pesticide that is designed to control insects in places like trees and shrubs in landscapes but is also used on interior plants in nurseries, greenhouses and other interior plantscapes. The applicator who use the product on the Linden Trees was completely within the confines of the law (as far as I can tell right now) and the use of a product like “Safari” is completely acceptable and common place. In fact as I type right this very second it’s likely that the product is being used in thousands of places around the country. The use and/or overuse of products like “Safari” are something that we have given the green light to as a society. They are readily available and completely acceptable to use as long as the applicator follows label instructions and as many pro pesticide e people are apt to say, “The Label is the Law.”
Now about that label. As a participating member in the lawn care industry, at least once a year, I physically print all of the labels that our applicators (In the BeeSafe network) could potentially use in the course of doing business. As much as I would like them all to switch to using completely organic products, systems and methods I am realistic in knowing that many of them also offer a chemical program and I can’t blame them because their ultimate goal should always be to grow their business and be profitable. Any way, these labels always give me an absolute heart attack when I read them closely and I know for a fact that the vast majority of our applicators would also think twice about using the products if they examined things a little bit more closely.
Let’s take a look at the label for “Safari,” the product that was used on the Linden Trees. It’s a thirteen page document that includes uses, mixing rates, application methods, target insects and of course there are a few warnings. I copied and pasted a few paragraphs from this label and put them below.
This pesticide is toxic to shrimp. Do not apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water
mark. Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from treated areas. Drift and runoff from treated areas maybe hazardous to aquatic organisms in water adjacent to treated areas. Do not dispose equipment washwaters or rinsate into a natural drain or water body.
This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area.
Dinotefuran and its degradate, MNG have the properties and characteristics associated with chemicals detected in ground water. The high water solubility of dinotefuran, and its degradate, MNG, coupled with its very high mobility, and resistance to biodegradation indicates that this compound has
a strong potential to leach to the subsurface under certain conditions as a result of label use. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in ground-water contamination. Periodic monitoring of shallow groundwater in the use area is recommended.
Without going into too much detail here, as a homeowner or a potential customer at a location where this product is being used, you should be absolutely terrified. Absolutely, completely one hundred percent terrified. The label is what the chemical companies are required to tell you about the product and we aren’t even going to think about going into some of the things they’ve hidden along the way. If you don’t think that there are a few “off the record” concerns with a product that comes right out and tells you that, A: ” is very toxic to shrimp” and B: ” Has the STRONG potential to leach into subsurface water.” What about all the stuff they are trying to hide?
Beside the shrimp, aquatic organisms and leaching issues, there it is in black and white, “This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds.” What would make any person in their right mind think it’s okay to spray this product into dozens of Linden Trees during the month of June to attempt to control a problem such as aphids that doesn’t likely exist as of yet. Were the Linden trees dying? Was there visible damage from aphids in the trees?
This is a call to any pesticide applicator who is using products like this to kill things. I’m begging you, “read the damn label.” If you, in good conscience feel that it is an acceptable risk to use in regard to the benefit gained then go ahead and spray to your hearts content because it won’t be too long before you do something else that will end up causing bodily harm to either you or your family. Applicators, use your head and don’t be stupid. The only way any of this madness will ever change is if we change it from the bottom up. Do NOT support products like this one. Do NOT spray when it isn’t needed and use alternative products that have lesser risks when spraying actually is required!
This past winter I was conducting a training session at a rather large lawn care service company in Pennsylvania. The company had asked me to travel to their location to spend some time teaching their managers about how to implement our organic lawn care system and program. Because they are one of our biggest customers at BeeSafe I was more than happy to jump on a plane and spend the day with them. Most of the training sessions that I do for companies, whether I travel to them or if I do them within the confines of “The Organic Lawn Care Institute” the majority of the attendees are relatively new to the lawn care industry. What this means is that they aren’t looking up at me with the “good lord not this shit” again look that most jaded industry veterans have on their faces when I start talking. This group of managers, for a well established lawn care company, all with at least a half dozen years of experience were all clearly demonstrating that particular look as I got in front of them and began my spiel. Before I lost them I went to the old trusty “pesticide horror story” song and dance because we all know that old lawn guys wear those stories like a badge and everybody has one or two.
With this transition I was able to get the room to perk up right away after I told my story about how at age 23 or so I rubbed Dursban on the inside of my lawn care cap. The goal was to keep the black flies from attacking my forehead on one especially humid May day some twenty years ago. (Yes the black flies left my forehead alone but how I spent the rest of the day is another story for another time. I will tell you I got a few laughs at the comparison to Jimi Hendrix using blotter acid in his sweat band) At the conclusion of my rant, the most jaded veteran in the room, who clearly had more than his fair share of lawn care anecdotes and horror stories turned to the group and said quietly, “I got one.”
He went on to tell the story of a coworker back in the nineties who had a cat with a flea problem. That lawn guy had access to the same insecticide that I just mentioned but in a liquid form. Dursban is an organophosphate that was taken off the market in 2002 because of its tendency to destroy the central nervous system of off target things like kids. So this guy, knowing that he had a cat with fleas and a bottle of liquid Dursban decided that he would give the cat a Dursban flea dip. He put a bunch of Dursban into the bathtub and presto/chango next thing you know he had a cat with no more fleas. The cat seemed fine until it went into convulsions, lost control of it’s bowels and died. Sure, I think Dursban was labeled for the control of fleas and he had a cat with fleas. Dead fleas. Dead cat.
What does this have to do with a whole bunch of dead bees falling out of Linden trees at a Target in Oregon? Well we certainly don’t want to draw any conclusions here because we don’t know exactly what would make 25,000 bumblebees fall from these trees but one can certainly make a few assumptions. I’m not going to do that right now because I’m in New Hampshire and all I’ve done is read a few articles about the situation. I can, however, write about what I know and what I know is that sometimes people do stupid things. Sometimes even if something may seem to make sense on the surface to most people, like you shouldn’t dip your cat in a bath filled with a toxic insecticide concentrate, sometimes not everybody gets it. Sometimes it’s the job of the society to protect the greater good by keeping this concept in mind.
I also know this: Japanese beetles like to eat Linden tree leaves. Usually not to the point where the Linden tree is damaged or dies but maybe to the point where some defoliation may occur. I also know this; it’s almost July and Japanese beetle grubs have just pupated from the larva stage to the beetle stage in places like Oregon. I also know this; many companies have programs that would include spraying an insecticide into the trees to prevent any insects from doing damage. I’m not saying that these Linden trees were treated with an insecticide because I don’t know that for sure being all the way across the country in New Hampshire.
But I do also know that one of the products that are often in the “I and D” (insect and disease) treatment of a tree and shrub program is a chemical called Bifenthrin. I also know that the following language is written clearly on the label of any product that consists of this chemical,
“This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or
residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow
to drift to blooming crops if bees are visiting the treatment area.”
I’m just going to leave this at that. There are things I know and things I don’t. One last thing I do know, is that sometimes people do stupid, reckless and careless things. If you are an owner of a lawn and landscape company or if you are an employee of one and there are stupid, reckless and careless things going on…….square it away. Be the one who stands up and makes a difference.
While it’s sometimes difficult to remember that even though the cold wind still blows here in New Hampshire, there are warm spring breezes throughout the majority of the country at this point. Yes, it’s been a long winter and even the first two weeks of spring have brought temperatures well below normal. However, I’ve enjoyed catching up with a good number of our loyal FireBelly Lawn Care customers in the last few days. As your dandelions begin to bloom and your grass begins to green we welcome you back to the season of lawn care!
If you have yet to order your seasonal package please do so now. And as always, if you ever have any questions about how to keep your lawn green the healthy way please don’t ever hesitate to call.
We recommend using “Iron X” from our friends at “Gardens Alive.”